Descargar World Malaria Report 2013 por Chris Elliot Epub y PDF
This edition of the World Malaria Report summarizes the current status of malaria control worldwide. It reviews progress towards internationally agreed goals and targets, and describes trends in funding, intervention coverage and malaria cases and deaths. In 2013, there are 97 countries and territories with ongoing malaria transmission, and 6 countries in the prevention of reintroduction phase, making a total of 103 countries and territories in which malaria is presently considered endemic. Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. WHO estimates that 207 million cases of malaria occurred globally in 2012 (uncertainty range 135-287 million) and 627,000 deaths (uncertainty range 473,000-789,000). Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) occurred in Africa, and most deaths (77%) were in children under 5 years of age.The World Malaria Report presents a critical analysis and interpretation of data provided by national malaria control programs (NMCPs) in endemic countries. Standard reporting forms were sent in April 2013 to the 97 countries with ongoing malaria transmission, and to 5 of the countries that recently entered the prevention of reintroduction phase. Information was requested on (i) populations at risk; (ii) vector species; (iii) number of cases, admissions and deaths for each parasite species; (iv) completeness of outpatient reporting; (v) policy implementation; (vi) commodities distributed and interventions undertaken; (vii) results of household surveys; and (viii) malaria financing. Table 1.2 summarizes the percentage of countries responding by month and by WHO region in 2012. Information from household surveys was used to complement data submitted by NMCPs, notably the demographic and health surveys (DHS), multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS) and malaria indicator surveys (MIS). These surveys provide information on the percentage of the population that sleeps under a mosquito net, and the percentage of children with fever who are treated and the medication they receive. Information on malaria financing was obtained from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) database on foreign aid flows, and directly from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and the US Presidents Malaria Initiative (PMI). Data were analyzed by WHO staff at headquarters and regional offices, with extensive consultation with WHO country offices and NMCPs regarding the interpretation of country information. Assistance in data analysis and interpretation was also provided by the African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA), the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), the Malaria Atlas Project, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Global Fund.The following chapters consider the policies and interventions recommended by WHO, the implementation of interventions, and the impact of these interventions on malaria cases and deaths, from a global and a regional perspective. Chapter 2 summarizes the WHO policy-setting process and the policies and strategies recommended by WHO to achieve the internationally agreed goals for malaria control and elimination. It describes the goals and targets for malaria control and elimination, and recommended indicators of progress. Chapter 3 reviews recent trends in international and domestic financing in relation to the resource requirements for meeting global malaria control targets. It examines the distribution of malaria funding by WHO region, by gross national income (GNI) per capita and by malaria mortality rate of a country. It also reviews endemic countries willingness to pay for malaria control. Chapter 4 reviews the commodity needs for malaria vector control. It considers the policies that national programs have adopted for vector control implementation, and the progress made towards universal access to ITNs and IRS. An update is provided on the growing problem of insecticide resistance, and the appropriate monitoring and management of resistance. Chapter 5 reviews progress in implementation of chemoprevention, particularly the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy and in infants, and the introduction of seasonal chemoprevention in older children. It also reports on the current status of malaria vaccine development. Chapter 6 reviews the commodity needs for malaria diagnostic testing and treatment. It reports on the extent to which national programs have adopted policies for universal diagnostic testing of suspected malaria cases, and examines trends in the availability of parasitological testing. It also reviews the adoption of policies and implementation of programs for improving access to effective treatment for malaria. Finally, this chapter reports on progress in the withdrawal of oral artemisinin-based monotherapies from the market, the current status of drug efficacy monitoring, recent trends in antimalarial drug resistance and efforts to contain artemisinin resistance. Chapter 7 examines the extent to which data are available for monitoring progress towards international targets, and how this has changed since 2000. Chapter 8 reviews trends in reported malaria cases for 62 countries that have reported consistently between 2000 and 2012.For countries with low numbers of cases, it summarizes their progress towards elimination. This chapter also presents an analysis of the estimated numbers of cases and deaths for countries with ongoing transmission between 2000 and 2012. Regional profiles are provided. These summarize the epidemiology of malaria in each WHO region, trends in malaria case incidence, and the links between malaria trends and malaria program implementation.
En el sitio www.apdm.com.mx puede descargar libros World Malaria Report 2013 en los formatos más populares fb2, txt, epub, mobi, pdf, así como leer libros en línea de forma gratuita sin necesidad de registrarse. Además, el sitio tiene una lista de los mejores libros interesantes, que en una forma comprimida contiene todas las colecciones de los mejores libros interesantes.